South Caradon Mine shown on the 1886 OS map

Exploring South Caradon Mine by Maps

Navsbooks>South Caradon Mine>Maps

What a difference a few years make on the internet. When I first published the views of South Caradon website online map resources were sparse; but now hours can be idled away in virtual exploration.  Therefore rather then just reproduced my original simplistic and dated .gif map of the mine I have brought together some maps now freely available on the internet. Enjoy exploring..Jm

From the National Library of Scotland

Ordnance Survey map of 1882

South Caradon Mine shown on the 1886 OS map
Click to view map on the NLS website

This is the best map easily available of the mine site. It shows the buildings all still standing, along with the tramways, leats, shafts,  and ponds. To view the map visit the excellent NLS website.

Click here to view the map>

Google Maps

Ariel view

An amazing resource for the industrial archaeologists. Matching the features shown on the view with the NLS map is a great way to interpret the site.

Google Steet View

This view is taken between Holman’s and Kitto’s shafts.

Cornwall Council Interactive Map

This is a multilayered resource that gives access to archaeological data of all the key remains on South Caradon mine.  Visit the Council’s website and click on the icons to discover more.

South Caradon Mine area showing the historic remains
Click to view the map on the Cornwall Council website

Click here to view>

Ordnance Survey on line map

OS map 2017

A freely available map showing all the main landscape features.

Screen capture of map in 2017
Cllick to view map on the OS webite

Click here to view>

Click here for  hyperlinks to map pins of the mine’s remains>

British Geological Survey

Sheet 337

This sheet shows the geology of the Caradon Hill area. Some of the important lodes and cross-courses are also shown. The map is available on the BGS website.

Extract of BGS geological map.
Click to view on BGS website

From the ‘View of South Caradon’ website

Here is the original gif image from my original website. A simple map, but one that does explain the layout of the mine.

South Caradon Mine layout

Other South Caradon Maps on this blog

Annotated OS 1883 map of Kitto's Shaft

These maps show areas of the mine in more detail. It is a growing list, so please re-visit

 


wp-1453408124105.jpegBrenton Symons’s 1863 Geological Map

South Caradon Mine is included on this map of the Liskeard Mining district. The full map is available in the Kindle Publication ‘The Liskeard Mining District in 1863’.

Click here for the book’s Amazon page>

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Bomin Moor Granite- Was Brenton Symons right?

In the previous posts I identified that the Liskeard 1863 Geological map of the Caradon Hill area and the modern British Geological Survey disagreed on the location of the granite/killas boundary. So which one was right?

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I hoped it was Brenton Symons Victorian map, for no other reason that it appeared more detailed. However, with a bit of digging in some of the books on the shelves I managed to discover which map was best.

Much of the modern evidence came from my well worn, and annotated copy of ‘Dines’, or to give its full title ‘The Metalliferous Mining Region of South West England’

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South Caradon Mine
Strangely enough, Dines was of not much help here

“Granite overlayed with killas in the south east.”

Was the only scrap of information it offered. Webb and Geach in their 1863 book was of more use though

“The  junction  of  killas  with  granite  occurs  a  little  south  of  Caunter and Kitto’s lodes. “

This statement coincides with the course of the contact shown on the modern map. It is rather strange that Symons was in error within such a well mined sett as South Caradon, and even stranger that he was in disagreement with Webb and Geach, considering their book and his map were believed to be have been produced in association with each other.

The Victorian authors support the modern location of the granite boundary within their reports on South Caradon

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Wheal Hooper
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Wheal Hooper
The  whole  of  the  sett  is  in killas,  which  overlays  the  granite  at  about  an  angle  of  45°,  and  the  junction occurring  at  the  northern  boundary,  the  engine  shaft  at  the  54  comes  into granite,  its  contact  with  the  slate  being  well-defined,  no  decomposition  having  taken  place.  It  should  be  noticed  that  two  elvan  courses  of  felspatic granite run parallel to the lodes.

Agents report
The  winze  below  the  62  (a  most  promising  point)  would,  however,  have been  proceeded  with,  but  for  a  great  influx  of  water  during  the  last  3ft. sinking,  causing  a  great  advance  in  the  price,  and  rendering  it  necessary to  purchase  a  larger  lift  in  order  to  proceed  with  the  work.  It  was  therefore thought  more  advisable  to  suspend  it,  as  the  cutting  of  the  lode  at  the  90 would  probably  drain  off  all  the  water,  and  enable  us  to  sink  the  winze  at a  very  considerable  saving,  and  without  the  aid  of  a  lift.  Near  the  bottom of  the  winze  is  a  sort  of  slide  which  appears  to  have  heaved  the  lode  to the  south,  whence  flows  the  water.  The  granite  in  the  bottom  of  the  winze is  of  favourable  description,  and  the  cleavages  are  faced  with  copper  ore

So far then, my hopes for Brenton Symon’s work being more accurate had been proven incorrect. The next mine to be looked at was second most important one on the map, Phoenix United.

Webb and Geach state-

Phoenix.
“The  present  workings  are  in  granite,  but  a  tongue  of  killas  is  deposited  in  the south-eastern  portion  of  the  sett,  in  which  is  a  promising  lode  worked  on  the backs  for  a  long  distance,  and  called  the  Snuff-box  Lode.”

Dines presented an excellent resource to disentangle the complex geology here, nice cross section of workings on the main lode.

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Part of this diagram is shown here (Copyright BGS). The plan show the lode running west to east. My annotated yellow line is the granite/Killas contact. Killas to the right, granite to the left. It is indicated reaching the surface close east of West’s Shaft. The conclusion from this fact is that again the Modern map is more accurate.

The dotted yellow line is the Great cross-course, more on that feature in the next post.

The final mine I studied in detail was South Phoenix.  Brenton Symons shows that sett within granite, and yet the British Geological Survey clearly show a large slab of killas intruding between two faults as far west at the Hurlers.

Again Dines contained a diagram that provided an answer.

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This cross section runs north to south across the South Phoenix Sett. It clearly shows the ground between Prosper Shaft and Parson’s Shaft being ‘clay slate’. An indication that yet again the modern map is more accurate.

Despite of my desire to prove the superiority of the Victorian cartography, when it came to depicting the granite/killas contact the modern map was clearly superior.

British Geological Survey 1, Brenton Symons 0

Next round would be the cross-courses, or faults. 


 

Brenton Symons’ 1863 map is reproduced in ‘The Liskeard Mining Area in 1863’

Webb and Geach’s book is available in paperback.

A Liskeard mining area map

Maps are amazing, they jam so much knowledge about the past and the present into such a small space. I have no doubt that this blog will keep dashing down rabbit holes of maps-here is another one!   No apologies for the diversion.

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This a copy of a map I produced for the interactive CD-ROM ‘The Liskeard Mining District in 1863‘. It is based on a wonderful piece of Victorian cartography, Brenton Symon’s 1863 map. Each of the mine setts is colour coded to indicate the status in 1863, forming a patchwork of colours across the landscape reflecting the mineral wealth beneath.

Click here to see a list of my books available on Amazon.

South Caradon Mine picture notes

The ‘Last Great Cornish Engineer’ book launch is to start off (after tea and cake) with an exploration of two amazing photos of mines closely associated with William West. Both photos are well known, but I find them fascinating to explore, detail packed in to every part of the black and white images.

The first of the two photographs is from page 76 and 77 of the ”Last Great Cornish Engineer’, and shows South Caradon Mine in the 1880s. Here is an extract from the OS map of the same period and a few notes about the engines shown in the photograph.
 

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Sump shaft Pumping Engine
This building housed the first engine to be installed at the mine, probably by William West. It was built in 1837 and different sources place its size at 30″, 35″ or 45″. Prior to its construction the pump was powered by flat-rods driven by a water wheel down in the valley. As the workings expanded underground a larger 50″ engine was installed (possibly in the late 1840’s) and this was still in place when the mine was finally closed

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Sump Shaft Whim
The winding engine lies upslope of the shaft and in addition to winding at Sumps this engine provided power by flat rods to Pearce’s shaft higher up the hill. A 22 inch horizontal engine was housed in this building (some sources state a 16/30″). The was engine designed by William West. and was probably installed in 1844 (ref CAU) .
Horizontal engines did not require a substantial bob wall and the structure was therefore lighter than a traditional Cornish Engine house.

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Stamp and Crusher Engine

The engine was of 28 inch diameter and powered a 24 head of stamps.  No  boiler house can be seen in this photograph immediately behind the Engine house where the CAU study suggests it should be.It was common for stamp engines to have its boiler houses in this position in order to release the room in front and to the sides for heads of stamps.

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Pearce’s Shaft

The Pumping from this shaft was originally powered by flat-rods running uphill from the winding engine at Sump Shaft.
The 50″ engine was installed at Pearce’s in 1870, relatively late in the mines life.

Reasons suggested for the buttressed including unstable ground and the angle of the shaft. Brown & Acton supports the angle of shaft theory.

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